Tuesday, December 17, 2013

Kwan King-leung 關景良 (1893-1945)

updated March 29, 2014.

The Frist Locally Trained Medical Practitioner to Practice in Hong Kong.

Kwan King-leung
b.1869 Hong Kong – d.1945 Hong Kong. Alias Kwan Sum-yin 關心焉. Diocesan School. Matriculated at HKCMC 1887. LMSH November 28, 1893. House Surgeon, Nethersole Hospital (1893-96). China 1896. Qing Army Surgeon 1896-98, serving in the army commanded by Viceroy of Huguang, Chang Chi-tung (Zhang Zhidong) 湖廣總督張之洞. Returned to Hong Kong 1898, private practitioner 1898-1945. Authorized to practice July 8, 1908 - EOP [1].  Authorized medical practitioner to sign medical certificates of death 1908-EOP. Hong Kong University Endowment Fund Sub-Committee 1909. Management Board 1930s, Chairman of the Board of Directors 1930s-1945, Hong Kong and Yaumati Ferry Company Limited 香港油蔴地小輪有限公司. Japanese occupation of Hong Kong, Head, Kowloon Tong District Office (appointed by the Japanese occupation government) [Kwan was considered by the Hong Kong Government an enemy collaborator]. Chairman, Chinese Club 華商會所 1935-37. Addresses: 1. #18A Stanley Street 1908;  2. #74, Queen's Road Central 1941.

1911 photo of the Kwan family.

s/o Kwan Yuen-cheong 關元昌. Siblings: 1. Kwan King-hung 關景亨 [confirmation required]; 2. Kwan King-fai 關景輝 (responsible for the panning of an unsuccessful attemp to assassinate the Empress Dowager).
Had issues: Kwan Siu Yee.

1890 photo of Kwan (standing) and the "Four Bandits 四大寇" comprising Sun Yat-sen and his three young manic-revolutionary friends. From left: Yeung Hok-ling 楊鶴齡 (b.1868 –d.1934); Sun; Chan Siu-pak 陳少白(b.1869-d.1934), who was also a student of HKCMC; and Yau Lit 尢列 (b.1865-d.1936). The photo was taken at the Alice Memorial Hospital.
[Kwan and Sun Yat-sen]

A poster showing a Chinese man posing in the new attire promoted by the Cut Queue Keep Attire Society
[No introduction of Kwan Sun-Yin can be complete without the “Cut Queue Keep Attire Society” episode; the Chinese name being 剪辮不易服會 and I must apologize for the poor English name translation since I was unable to find the proper name of the society in English given by historians. Established by Kwan, the society advocated a new attire for Chinese men (I think its main concern was ethnic Han men) whereby the wearing of Manchurian robe, also known as mandarin gown, was acceptable but the wearing of the compulsory queue was not. The movement had a significant symbolic meaning: first, to rid of the single most iconic image of submission to the Manchu reign; second, to uphold patriotism for not dressing in the Western manner. Kwan went to the extent of having the society incorporated with the Hong Kong Government and on November 4, 1910 hosted a general assembly of the society. The meet was held at the grand hall of the Chinese Chamber of Commerce and was attended by more than 600 personages including six reputable founding members. They were Kwan’s father, Kwan Yuen-cheong 關元昌; the grandfather of Prof. C.Y. Wang, Wang Yuan-shen 王元琛; the Rev. Au Fung-chi 區風墀; businessman, political theorist and Ho Kai's best friend Wu Lai-woon (Hu Liyuan) 胡禮垣; Ng Chau-wu 吳秋湖; and church elder Wan Ching-kai 溫清溪. The most important message delivered in the assembly was that it was absolutely legal in Hong Kong for Chinese not to wear a queue.]

[1] LMSH was the qualification awarded to graduates of the Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese HKCMC (1887-1912). Holders of LMSH were not authorized to practice as private practitioners until July 8, 1908 [a]. From that day on they were permitted to practice as "exempted persons", but not to be listed in the Medical Register.
[a] There were hospital appointments, more particularly at missionary or charitable hospitals, prior to 1908. For instance, Kwan King-leung 關景良, LMSH 1893, was permitted to practice at the Alice Memorial Hospital 1893.
Selected bibliography: The Hong Kong Government Gazette, July 10, 1908, Notice #482; May 9, 1941, Notice #558. Sham Wai Chi, The History of Hong Kong and Yaumati Ferry Company Lmiited, 1923 to the 1970s, Master of Philosophy in History Thesis, Lingnan University, 2007. Wang Fung Yee; Chan-Yeung Mo-wah, Moria, To Serve and to Lead: A History of the Diocesan Boy's School Hong Kong, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2009.


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